Archive for the ‘Learning Myanmar Language For Foreigners’ Category

Learning Myanmar Language

August 6, 2008

Myanmar Language

ျမန္မာဘာသာစကား

(mjan ma ba tha sa. ka:)

by saya AG

ဆရာAG ေရးသည္

Every language consists of 3 groups of sentences.

1.Imperatives – ခုိင္းျခင္း ( khain: chin:)

(i) Positive commands -ခုိင္းျခင္း (khain: chin:)

(ii) Negative commands -မခုိင္းျခင္း (ma. khain: chin:)

2.Statements – ေျပာျခင္း (pjo: chin:)

(i) Positive statements -ေျပာျခင္း (pjo: chin:)

(ii) Negative statements -ျငင္းျခင္း (njin: chin:)

3.Questions – ေမးျခင္း (mei: chin:)

(a) Yes or No Questions

(i) Positive yes or no questions -ဟုတ္လား (hou’ la:)

(ii)Negative yes or no questions -မဟုတ္ဘူးလား (ma. hou’ bu: la:)

(b) Wh- Questions

(i) Positive wh- questions -ဘာ _ လဲ (ba _ le:)

(ii)Negative wh- questions -ဘာမ _ တာလဲ (ba ma._ da le:)

1.Imperatives – ခုိင္းျခင္း ( khain: chin:)

(i) positive commands -ခုိင္းျခင္း (khain: chin:)

Commands include requests, suggestions, permissions, invitation and persuasions.

In Myanmar language, put the word “ပါ(pa)” behind the verb. It’s a general rule.

You can say the commands without “ပါ(pa)“. But it is not a polite usage.

When you are angry , you can use it.

V ပါ

e.g

1.Please go.                = သြားပါ(thwa: pa/ba) / သြား ။

2.Please, go to school. = ေက်ာင္းကုိ သြားပါ(kjaun: kou thwa: pa/ba) /

ေက်ာင္းကုိ သြား။(kjaun: kou thwa:)

3.Come .                    = လာပါ။(la pa/ba) /

လာ။(la)

4.Come here.             = ဒီကုိ လာပါ(di kou la pa/ba) /

ဒီကုိ လာ။(di kou la)

5.Eat the apple.          = ပန္းသီး စားပါ(pan: thi: sa: pa/ba) /

ပန္းသီးစား။(pan: thi: sa:)

6.Have dinner.           = ညစာ စားပါ(nja. sa sa: pa/ba)

7.Sit down here.        = ဒီမွာ ထုိင္ပါ(di hma htain pa/ba)

There are other Myanmar words used in commands. You can put these words behind the verbs like “ပါ(pa)”.

စမ္း(san:), ေလ(lei), ခဲ့(khe.), ေနာ္(no), ေတာ့(to.), လုိက္(lai’), အုံး(oun:)

ပါအုံး(pa oun:), ပါဆုိ(pa sou), ေတာ့ေလ(to. lei), ေတာ့ေနာ္(to. no),

လုိက္ေတာ့ (lai’ to.), ပါေတာ့(pa to.), လိုက္ပါ(lai’ pa), လိုက္အုံး(lai’ oun:), လုိက္ေနာ္(lai’ no), လုိက္ေလ(lai’ lei), ခဲ့ပါ(khe. pa), ခဲ့အုံး(khe. oun:),

ခဲ့ေနာ္(khe. no), ခဲ့ေလ(khe. lei),

ၾကည္႕ပါ(kji. pa), ၾကည္႕အုံး(kji oun:), ၾကည္႕ေနာ္(kji no), ၾကည္႕ေလ(kji. lei), ၾကည္႕စမ္း(kji san:)

e.g

1. Say it.         = ေျပာ စမ္း ။ ေျပာ ေလ ။ ေျပာ ေနာ္ ။ ေျပာ ေတာ့ ။ ေျပာ လိုက္

ေျပာ အုံး ။ ေျပာ ပါအုံး ။ ေျပာ ပါဆုိ ။ ေျပာ ေတာ့ေလ။ ေျပာ ေတာ့ေနာ္

ေျပာ လုိက္ေတာ့။ ေျပာ ပါေတာ့။ ေျပာ လိုက္ပါ။ ေျပာ လုိက္အုံး

ေျပာ လိုက္ေနာ္။ ေျပာ လိုက္ေလ။ ေျပာ ခဲ့ပါ။ ေျပာ ခဲ့အုံး။ ေျပာ ခဲ့ေနာ္

ေျပာ ခဲ့ေလ။ ေျပာ ၾကည္႕ပါ။ ေျပာ ၾကည္႕အုံး။ ေျပာ ၾကည္႕ေနာ္

ေျပာ ၾကည္႕ေလ။ ေျပာ ၾကည္႕စမ္း

2. Come here. = ဒီကုိ လာ စမ္း။ ဒီကုိ လာ ေလ။ ဒီကုိ လာ ေနာ္။ ဒီကုိ လာ ေတာ့

ဒီကုိ လာ လုိက္။ ဒီကုိ လာ အုံး

3. Go.             = သြား စမ္း။ သြား ေလ။ (သြား ခဲ့)။ သြား ေနာ္။ သြား ေတာ့။

(သြား လုိက္)။ (သြား အုံး)။

Note: (သြား ခဲ့), (သြား လုိက္), (သြား အုံး)

They are not used in practical conversation.

Suggestion: For a beginner, he should use “ ပါ (pa/ba)”

to make a command for avoiding the mistakes.

Commands for emotive or contrastive emphasis

ေလးေလးနက္နက္ခုိင္းျခင္း (lei: lei: ne’ ne’ khain: chin:)

Put the word “ဆက္ဆက္(se’ se’) infront of the verb and “ပါ(pa/ba)” behind it.

Put the word “ျဖစ္ေအာင္(phi’ aun)” behind the verb and “ပါ(pa/ba)” behind the another same word of verb. The verb is written twice in this Myanmar structure.

For this purpose, we put the word “do” infront of the verb in English.

ဆက္ဆက္ V ပါ

V ျဖစ္ေအာင္ V ပါ

e.g

1. Do come here.         = ဒီကုိ ဆက္ဆက္ လာ ပါ။(di kou se’ se’ la pa/ba)

2. Do do it.                  = လုပ္ ျဖစ္ေအာင္ လုပ္ ပါ။(lou’ phe’ aun lou’ pa)

3. Do go there.            = အဲဒီေနရာကုိ သြား ျဖစ္ေအာင္ သြား ပါ

(e: di nei ja kou thwa: phi’ aun thwa: pa)

4. Do tell your father it. = မင္းအေဖကုိ ဆက္ဆက္ ေျပာ ပါ

(min: a. phei kou se’ se’ pjo: pa)

5. Do make a plan.       = အစီအစဥ္ လုပ္ ျဖစ္ေအာင္ လုပ္ ပါ

(a si a sin lou’ phi’ aun lou’ pa)

(ii) Negative Commands

မခုိင္းျခင္း

In Myanmar language, we must put “ မ(ma.)” in front of the verb and “ဘူး(bu:”) behind it.

V ဘူး

e.g

1. Don’t do it.               = လုပ္ နဲ႔ ။(ma. lou’ ne.)
2. Don’t move.              = လႈပ္ နဲ႔ ။(ma. hlou’ ne.)
3. Don’t walk.               = လမ္း ေလွ်ာက္ ဲ႔ ။(lan: ma. hlau’ ne. )

Note: Don’t say လမ္းေလွ်ာက္ နဲ႔ ။“(ma. lan: hlau’ ne.)

4. Don’t come with me. = ငါ နဲ႔ လုိက္ နဲ႔

(nga ne. – ma. lai’ ne.)

5. Don’t write.              = ေရး နဲ႔ ။ ( ma. jei: ne.)

6. Don’t say it.              = ေျပာ နဲ႔ ။ ( ma. pjo: ne.)

Usage of “Never V …”

Never = ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ (be to. hma.)

ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ မ V နဲ႕

e.g

1. Never forget it. = အဲဒါကုိ ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ ေမ့ နဲ႔ ။

(e da kou be to. hma. ma. mei. ne.)

2. Never come here. = ဒီကုိ ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ လာ နဲ႔ ။

(di kou be to. hma. ma. la ne.)

3. Never say “Good bye”. = ႏႈတ္ဆက္စကား ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ ေျပာ နဲ႔ ။

(hnou’ se’ sa. ka : be to. hma. ma. pjo: ne.)

4. Nerver go to John. = John ဆီကုိ ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ သြား နဲ႔ ။

(John si kou be to. hma. ma. thwa: ne.)

5. Never go to that place. = အဲဒီေနရာ ကုိ ဘယ္ေတာ့မွ သြား နဲ႔ ။

(e: di nei ja kou be to. hma. ma. thwa: ne.)

Note: The direction word “to” can be used with people and places.

-to John = John ဆီကုိ (with people)

-to that place = အဲဒီေနရာ ကုိ (with the place)

Exercise = ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း (lei. kjin. khan:)

Say the following sentences in Myanmar

ေအာက္ပါ စာေၾကာင္းမ်ားကုိ ျမန္မာလုိ ေျပာပါ။

( au’ pa sa kjaun: mja: kou mjan ma lou pjo: pa)

  1. Don’t drink much beer. 5. Get off the bus at the bus stop “106”.
  2. Never say “Sorry”. 6. Do go and see your principle.
  3. Don’t take my book. 7. Do say your students “ Min ga. la pa”.
  4. Never say “Sa pa”. 8. Take care, Robert. 3

2.Statement – ေျပာျခင္း (pjo: chin:)

(i)Positive statement

ေျပာျခင္း(pjo: chin:)

There is a verb after the subject in an English sentence. Verb is always at

the end of the Myanmar sentence. We can say the position of verb exactly

in Myanmar sentences. If you want to speak in Myamar , you must obey it.

Verb to Do- ျပဳျခင္းျပ ၾကိယာ (pju chjin pja ka ji. Ja)

Put the word “တယ္(te)” after the verb. You can use it in present tense

and past tense. We sometimes

use “ခဲ့တယ္(khe. te)” in past tense.

e.g

1. I go.               = ကြ်န္ေတာ္ သြားတယ္ ။(kjun to thwa: te)

2. I go to school. = ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ေက်ာင္း<ကုိ> သြားတယ္

(kjun to-kjaun: <kou>-thwa: te)

3. I go to school at 8:00 am. = ရွစ္နာရီမွာ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ေက်ာင္း<ကုိ> သြားတယ္။

(shi’ na ji hma-kjun to- kjaun: <kou>- thwa: te)

4. Saya AG comes to me. = ဆရာAG ကြ်န္ေတာ္ဆီကုိ လာတယ္။

(sayaAG – kjun to. si kou – la te)

Put the word “သည္(thi)” after the verb instead of “တယ္(te)” in writing.

5. I have dinner at 7:00pm. =(i) ကြ်န္ေတာ္ – ညစာကုိ- ခြန္ႏွစ္နာရီမွာ – စားသည္

(kjun to -nja. Sa kou -khun hni’ na ji hma- sa: thi )

(ii) ကြ်န္ေတာ္ – ခြန္ႏွစ္နာရီမွာ – ညစာကုိ – စားသည္

(kjun to – khun hni’ na ji hma – nja. Sa kou – sa: thi )

Note:

You must say the verb at the end. You should put the complement of verb

before verb. You can say first the time words.

Verb to Have – ရွိျခင္းျပ ၾကိယာ (shi. chjin: pja. ka. ji. ja)

Meaning of holding, possessing and belonging to oneself

have , has , had (V) = ရွိ တယ္(shi. te) / ရွိ ခဲ့တယ္(shi. khe. te)

If you use verb to “have”, you do put the word “မွာ(hma)” behind the subject.

You have to put stress on the subject.

I have = ကြ်န္ေတာ့မွာ (kjun to. hma) ……. ရွိတယ္။(shi. te)

He has = သူ႕မွာ (thu. Hma) …….. ရွိတယ္။(shi. te)

She has = သူ႕မွာ (thu. Hma) …….. ရွိတယ္။(shi. te)

Note:

But you don’t put stress on the pronouns such as we, they and you in Myanmar

e.g

1. I have 3 brothers. = ကြ်န္ေတာ့္မွာ- အကုိသုံးေယာက္-ရွိတယ္

(kjun to. hma – a. kou thoun: jau’ – shi te)

2. He has 2 sisters.   = သူ႕မွာ – အမႏွစ္ေယာက္- ရွိတယ္

(thu. hma – a. ma hni’ jau’ – shi. te)

3. Joe has 12 siblings. = ဂ်ဳိးမွာ – ေမာင္ႏွမ ဆယ့္ႏွစ္ေယာက္ – ရွိတယ္

(gjou: hma-maun hni’ ma. se. hni’ jau’ – shi. te)

4. I have a camera.     = ငါ့မွာ – ကင္မရာ – ရွိတယ္

(nga. hma – kin ma. ja – shi. te)

5. I had a lovely cat.= ကြ်န္ေတာ့မွာ – ခ်စ္စရာေကာင္းတဲ့ေၾကာင္<ေလး>ရွိတယ္

(kjun to. hma – chi’ sa. ja kaun: te. kjaun <lei> – shi te)

ကြ်န္ေတာ့မွာ – ခ်စ္စရာေကာင္းတဲ့ေၾကာင္<ေလး>ရွိခဲ့တယ္

(kjun to. hma – chi’ sa. ja kaun: te. kjaun <lei> – shi khe.te)

Verb to Be – ျဖစ္ျခင္းျပ ၾကိယာ

Meaning

be, am, is, are, was, were + N(noun) = ျဖစ္တယ္။(hpi’ te) /

ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။(hpi’ pa te) /
ပါ။(pa) / ေလ။(lei)

You must put the word “က(ka.)” after subject.

e.g

1. Robert is a teacher.= ေရာဘတ္က – ဆရာ ျဖစ္တယ္

(jo: ba’ ka. – sa ya – hpi’ te)

ေရာဘတ္က – ဆရာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္

(jo: ba’ ka. – sa ya – hpi’ pa te)

ေရာဘတ္က – ဆရာ ပါ

(jo: ba’ ka. – sa ya – pa/ba )

ေရာဘတ္က – ဆရာ ေလ

(jo: ba’ ka. – sa ya – lei )

2. I am a history teacher in a high school.

= ကြ်န္ေတာ္က – အထက္တန္း – သမုိင္းဆရာပါ

(kjun to ka. – a. the’ tan: – tha. Main: sa ja pa/ba)

3. I’m Robert. = ကြ်န္ေတာ္က – ေရာဘတ္ ပါ။ (kjun to ka. Jo: ba’ pa/ba)

4. This is Mr Tin. = ဒါ<က>မစ္စတာ တင္ ပါ။ (da ka. Mi’ sa. ta tin pa/ba)

5. I’m a Myanmar. = ကြ်န္ေတာ္က – ျမန္မာ ပါ။ (kjun to ka. mjan ma pa/ba)

6. It’s a new word. = ဒါ<က> – စာလုံး <အ>သစ္ ပါ

(da <ka.> sa loun: <a.> thi’ pa/ba)

Time – အခ်ိန္

e.g

1. It’s 9 o’clock. = ကုိးနာရီ – ထုိးျပီ။(kou: na ji – htou: pji)

2. It’s 9:15. = ကုိးနာရီ ဆယ့္ငါးမိနစ္ – ရွိျပီ

(kou: na ji se. nga: mi. ni’ – shi. pji)

3. It’s Sunday. = တနဂၤေႏြေန႔ ပါ။ (ta. nin: ga. nwei nei. Pa/ba)

4. It was 1996. = တစ္ေထာင္ ကုိးရာ ကုိးဆယ့္ ေျခာက္ ခုႏွစ္ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္

(ti’ htaun kou: ja kou: se. chjau’ khu hni’ hpji’ pa te)

There is / There are / There was / There were + N

You must say these words in Myanmar “ရွိတယ္(shi. te)”

at the end of the sentence.

e.g

1. There is a man in the room. = အခန္းထဲမွာ- လူတစ္ေယာက္- ရွိတယ္

(a. khan: hte: hma – lu ti’ jau’ – shi. te)

2. There are many people on the road. = လမ္းေပၚမွာ – လူအမ်ားၾကီး – ရွိတယ္။

(lan: po hma – lu a. mja gji: – shi. te)

= လမ္းေပၚမွာ – လူအမ်ားၾကီး – ပဲ။

(lan: po hma – lu a. mja gji: – pe:)

Note:

You can say “အမ်ားၾကီး-ပဲ(a mja: gji: – pe:)” instead of “အမ်ားၾကီး-ရွိတယ္

(a. mja: gji:- shi. te)”

Verb to Be + place

am, is, are, was, were + place = -ရွိတယ္။(shi. te)

Myanmar meaning of verb to “Be” in this structure is “ရွိတယ္(shi. te)”.

Say it at the end of the sentence.

e.g

1. My mother is in the kitchen. = အေမ – မီးဖုိေခ်ာင္မွာ – ရွိတယ္။

(a. mei-mi: hpou khjaun-hma shi. te)
Note:

my mother = ကြ်န္ေတာ့္အေမ = အေမ
You can omit “my= ကြ်န္ေတာ့္” in Myanmar speaking.

But you must say other persons such as “your,his, her,

our and their”.
2. Your book is on the laptop. = ခင္ဗ်ားရဲ႕စာအုပ္-လက္ေတာ့ေပၚမွာ-ရွိတယ္။
(khin bja: ye. Sa ou’ le’ to. po hma shi. te)
3. YIEC is near my house. = YIEC က – ကြ်န္ေတာ့္အိမ္အနီးမွာ-ရွိတယ္။
(YIEC ka.- kjun to. ein a ni: hma shi. te)
4. China is in the north.    = တရုပ္ျပည္က- ေျမာက္ဘက္မွာ-ရွိတယ္။
(ta jou’ pjei ka. mjau’ be’ hma shi. te)

(ii) Negative statement

ျငင္းဆုိျခင္း (njin: sou chin:)

Verb to Be + not + noun(N)

am, is, are, was, were + not + noun = မဟုတ္ဘူး။ (ma. hou’ bu:)

e.g 1. He is not a teacher. = သူက – ဆရာ – မဟုတ္ဘူး။

(thu ka.- sa. ja – ma. hou’ bu:)

2. They are not students. = သူတုိ႔က – ေက်ာင္းသားေတြ – မဟုတ္ဘူး။

(thu to. ka. – kjun: tha: twei – ma. hou’ bu:)

3. It is not my fault. = ဒါ – ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ရဲ႕ အျပစ္ – မဟုတ္ဘူး။

(da – kjun to. je. a. pji’ – ma. hou’ bu:)

Verb to Be + not + place

am, is, are, was, were + not + noun = မရွိဘူး။ (ma. shi. bu:)

e.g

1. Robert is not here. = ေရာဘတ္ – ဒီမွာ – မရွိဘူး။

(jo: ba’ – di hma – ma. shi. bu:)

2. Nobody is not at hotel. = ဘယ္သူမွ – ဟုိတယ္မွာ – မရွိဘူး။

(be thu hma. – ho te hma – ma. shi. bu:)

3. My map is not in the bag. = ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ရဲ႕ေျမပုံ – အိပ္ထဲမွာ – မရွိဘူး။

(kjun to. je. mjei poun – ei’ the: hma – ma. shi. bu:)

4. The photos are not on the wall. = ဓါတ္ပုံေတြ – နံရံေပၚမွာ – မရွိဘူး။

(da’ poun twei – nan jan po hma – ma. shi. bu:)

6

There is / There are + no + N = မရွိဘူး။(ma. shi. bu:)

e.g

1. There is no man. = လူတစ္ေယာက္မွ – မရွိဘူး။

(lu ti’ jau’ hma. – ma. shi. bu:)

ဘယ္လူမွ – မရွိဘူး။(be lu hma. – ma. shi. bu:)

ဘယ္သူမွ – မရွိဘူး။(be thu hma. – ma. shi. bu:)

Note:

man(N) = ေယာက္က်ား(jau’ kja:)=male / လူ(lu) = either male or female

husband(N) = ေယာက္က်ား(jau’ kja:) / ခင္ပြန္း (khin pun:)

no + noun(N) = ဘယ္ “noun” မွ (be “noun” hma.) /

“noun”တစ္ခုမွ

no boy   = ဘယ္ေကာင္ေလးမွ (be kaun lei: hma.) /
ေကာင္ေလးတစ္ေယာက္မွ(kaun lei: ti’ jau’ hma.)
no place = ဘယ္ေနရာမွ (be nei ja hma.) /
ေနရာတစ္ခုမွ (nei ja ti’ khu. Hma)

2. There is no man like you. = မင္းလုိ လူ- ဘယ္သူမွ- မရွိဘူး။

(min: lou lu – be thu hma – ma. shi. bu:)
3. There is no water in the bottle. = ပုလင္းထဲမွာ – ေရ – မရွိဘူး။

(pa. lin: hte: hma – jei – ma. shi. bu:)
Note: Different sounds of the same word
ပု(pu.) = short (adj)
ပုလင္း(pa. lin:) = bottle
ဘု(bu.) = knob
ဘုရား(hpa. Ja:)= pagoda
ဘုရင္(ba. jin) = king
4. There are not many people at the hotel. = ဟုိတယ္မွာ- လူအမ်ားၾကီး-မရွိဘူး။
(ho te hma- lu a. mja: gji: – ma. shi. bu:)
Verb to Have

don’t have = မရွိဘူး။(ma. shi. bu:)
doesn’t have = မရွိဘူး။(ma. shi. bu:)
didn’t have = မရွိဘူး။(ma. shi. bu:)
have no N = မရွိဘူး။(ma. shi. bu:)
have nothing = ဘာမွ-မရွိဘူး။(bah ma.-ma. shi. bu:)

Note:

Don’t forget that you must put the word “မွာ(hma)” after the subject.
e.g 1. I don’t have money. = ငါ့ မွာ – ပုိက္ဆံ – မရွိဘူး

(nga. hma – pai’ san – hma. shi. bu:)
I have no money.         = ငါ့ မွာ – ပုိက္ဆံ – မရွိဘူး

(nga. hma – pai’ san – hma. shi. bu:)
2. She has no brother. = သူ႕ မွာ- အကုိ – မရွိဘူး

(thu. hma – a. kou – hma. shi. bu:)
3. I have nothing to do.= ငါ့ မွာ-ဘာမွ လုပ္စရာ- မရွိဘူး

(nga. hma – bah ma. lou’ sa. ja – hma. shi. bu:)

7

Verb to Do

don’t + V = မ V ဘူး။

dosen’t + V = မ V ဘူး။

didn’t + V = မ V ဘူး။ မ V ခဲ့ဘူး။

V + nothing = ဘာမွ – မ V ဘူး။

Insert the words “မ(ma.)” before the verb and “ဘူး(bu:)” after the verb.

e.g

1. I don’t go.  = ကြ်န္ေတာ္- သြား ဘူး။ (kjun to – ma. thaw: bu:)

2. I didn’t go. = ကြ်န္ေတာ္- သြား ဘူး။ (kjun to – ma. thaw: bu:)

= ကြ်န္ေတာ္- သြား ခဲ.ဘူး။ (kjun to – ma. thaw: khe. bu:)

3. He dosen’t eat meat. = သူ – အသား – စား ဘူး။ (thu – a. tha: – ma. sa: bu:)

4. She said nothing. = သူ<မ> – ဘာမွေျပာ ဘူး

(thu<ma.> – ba hma. – ma. pjo: bu:)

3.Questions – ေမးျခင္း(mei: chin:)

(a) Yes or No questions – လား ေမးခြန္း(la: mei: khun:)

All “Yes or No” questions in Myanmar language end the word “လား(la:)”.

(i)Positive Yes or No questions

Verb to Be + N ?

Am I N ? = …က N လား

Is S N ? = …က N လား

Are S N ? = …ေတြက N ေတြလား

Was S N ? = …က N လား

Were S N ? = …ေတြက N ေတြလား

S = subject, N = noun

Put the word “လား(la:)” after noun. It is the short form of

“ျဖစ္သလား(phji’ tha. La:)”.

Don’t forget to put “က(ka.)” after a single subject. When you use plural subject,

you must put the words “ေတြက(twei ka.)” after the subject and you have to say

“ေတြလား(twei la:)” behind the plural noun.

e.g

1. Am I a crazy man ? = ငါက – အရူး လား

(nga ka. – a. ju: la:)

2. Are you a foreigner ? = မင္းက – ႏုိင္ငံျခားသား လား

(min: ka. – nain ngan cha: tha: la:)

3. Are they soldiers ? = သူတုိ႕ေတြက – စစ္သား ေတြလား
(thu tou. twei ka. – si’ tha: – twei la:)
4. Are they your pupils ? = သူတုိ႕ေတြက – ခင္ဗ်ားရဲ႕တပည္႕ ေတြလား
(thu tou. twei ka. – khin bja: je. da. Be. – twei la:)

Verb to Be + place ?

မွာလား(hma la:)

Am I + place ? = မွာလား(hma la:)

Is S + place ? = မွာလား(hma la:)

Are S + place ? = မွာလား(hma la:)

Was S + place ? = မွာလား(hma la:)

Were S + place ? = မွာလား(hma la)

Place = ေနရာ (nei ja)

Myanmar meanings of some prepositions.

in = မွာ(hma) / အထဲမွာ(a. hte: hma) / ထဲမွာ( hte: hma)

in Yangon = ရန္ကုန္မွာ(jan koun hma)

in the room = အခန္း ထဲမွာ(a. khan: hte: hma)

on = အေပၚမွာ(a. po hma) / ေပၚမွာ(po hma)

on the table = စားပြဲေပၚမွာ(sa./za. pwe: po hma)

on the wall = နုံရံ ေပၚမွာ(nan jan po hma)

at = မွာ(hma)

at the door = တံခါးမွာ(da. kha: hma)

at the bus stop = ကားမွတ္တုိင္မွာ(ka: hma’ tain hma)

near = အနီးမွာ(a. ni: hma) / အနားမွာ(a. na: hma) / နားမွာ(na: hma)

near my school = ခင္ဗ်ားရဲ႕ေက်ာင္း နားမွာ(khin bja: je. kaun: na: hma)

from = မွ(hma.) / က(ka.) / ကေန(ka. nei)

from London = လန္ဒန္မွ(land an hma.) / လန္ဒန္က(lan dan ka.) / လန္ဒန္ကေန(lan dan ka. nei)

to = ကုိ(kou/gou) (use with people or place) / ဆီကုိ(si kou/gou) (use with people)

to Joe = ဂ်ဳိး ဆီကုိ(jou: si kou)

to the station = ဘူတာ<ရုံ> ကုိ(bu ta <joun> kou)

here = ဒီမွာ(di hma) / ဒီေနရာ(di nei ja) / ဒီက(di ka.) / ဒီကုိ(di kou)/(di gou)

there = အဲဒီမွာ(e: di hma) / ဟုိမွာ(hou hma) / ဟုိေနရာ(hou nei ja) / ဟုိက(hou ka.) / ဟုိကုိ(hou kou)/(hou gou)

e.g 1. Is your friend in the room? = ခင္ဗ်ားရဲ႕ သူငယ္ခ်င္း- အခန္း ထဲမွာလား

(khin bja: je. thu/tha. nge chin:- a. khan: hte: hma la:)

2. Were you at hotel yesterday? = မေန႕က – ခင္ဗ်ား – ဟုိတယ္ မွာလား

(ma. nei. ka.- khin bja:- ho te hma la:)

3. Is your house near YIEC ? = ခင္ဗ်ားရဲ႕အိမ္က- YIEC နားမွာလား

(khin bja: je ein ka.-YIEC na: hma la:) 9

Verb to Have + things or people ?

ရွိလား။(shi. la:)

Do S have … ? = ရွိလား(shi. la:)

Does S have … ? = ရွိလား(shi. la:)

Did S have … ? = ရွိလား(shi. la:) /ရွိခဲ့လား(shi. khe. la:)

Have S got … ? = ရွိလား(shi. la:) / ပါလား(pa la:)

Whenever you use verb to “Have” which means possessing, don’t forget to put the word “မွာ(hma)”

after the subject.

e.g 1. Do you have a friend in Myanmar? = ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ – သူငယ္ခ်င္း- ရွိလား။ (omission of subject “you”)

(mjan ma pjei hma-thu nge chin:- shi. la:)

ခင္ဗ်ား – ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ-သူငယ္ခ်င္း-ရွိလား

(khin bja: – mjan ma pjei hma-thu nge chin:- shi. la:)

ခင္ဗ်ားမွာ-ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ-သူငယ္ခ်င္း-ရွိလား

(khin bja: hma -mjan ma pjei hma- thu nge chin:- shi. la:)

Note: (i)In practical speaking in Myanmar, the subjects of the first person “I(ကြ်န္ေတာ္)” and the second

person “you(ခင္ဗ်ား)” are omitted frequently.

– Do you have a friend? = သူငယ္ခ်င္း- ရွိလား။(thu nge chin: – shi. la:)

– Do you have a laptop? = Laptop – ရွိလား။(Laptop – shi. la:)

I know him. = သူ႕ကုိ သိတယ္။ (thu. kou – thi. te)

(ii)When you use twice the same word “မွာ(hma)” for a person(you) and for a place(Myanmar),

you should omit one from the person.

2. Have you got a camera? = ခင္ဗ်ားမွာ – ကင္မရာ – ရွိလား / ပါလား

(khin bja: hma – kin ma. ja – shi. la:/ pa la:)

3. Did she have a car? = သူ႕မွာ – ကား- ရွိလား / ရွိခဲ့လား

(thu. hma-ka:-shi. la:/shi. khe. la:)

Verb to Do ?

လား(la:) /သလား(tha. la:)

Do S V …? = လား(la:)/သလား(tha. la:)

Does S V …? = လား(la:)/သလား(tha. la:)

Did S V …? = လား(la:)/သလား(tha. la:) /ေသးလား(thei: la:)

e.g 1. Do you go to school? = မင္း – ေက်ာင္းကုိ – သြားသလား

(min: – kjaun: kou – thwa: la:/tha. la:)

2. Did you go to school yesterday. = မေန႕က-မင္း-ေက်ာင္းကုိ-သြားေသးလား

(ma. nei. ka.-min: -kjaun: kou – thwa: thei: la:)

3. Do you like freedom? = ခင္ဗ်ား-လြပ္လပ္မႈကုိ- ၾကဳိက္သလား။

(khin bja:- lu’ la’ hmu. Kou – kjai’ tha. la:) 10

(i)Negative Yes or No questions

Verb to Be + not S N ?

Am I not a … ? = မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Is not S a … ? = မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Are not S ? = ေတြမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (twei ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Was not S a … ? = မဟုတ္ခဲ့ဘူးလား။ (ma. hou’ khe. bu: la:)

Were not S ? = ေတြမဟုတ္ခဲ့ဘူးလား။ (twei ma. hou’ khe. bu: la:)

Is not it a .. ? = ဒါက… မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (da ka.- … ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Don’t forget to put the word “က(ka.)” after subject. You have to say “မဟုတ္ဘူးလား(ma. hou’ bu: la:)”

at the end of the sentence.

e.g 1. Isn’t he John? = သူက- ဂြ်န္ – မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(thu ka.- John – ma. hou’ bu: la:)

2. Aren’t they your studentd? = သူတုိ႕က- မင္းရဲ႕ေက်ာင္းသား – ေတြမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(thu to. ka. – min: je. kaun: tha: – twei ma. hou’ bu: la:)

3. Am I not your teacher? = ငါက – မင္းတို႕ရဲ႕ဆရာ – မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(nga ka. – min: tou. je. sa. ja – ma. hou’ bu: la:)

4. Wasn’t she a singer? = သူက – အဆုိေတာ္ – မဟုတ္ခဲ့ဘူးလား။

(thu ka. – a. sou to – ma. hou’ khe. bu la:)

5. Isn’t it a MP4 player ? = ဒါက – MP4 – မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(da ka. – MP4 – ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Verb to Be + not S place ?

Am I not place ..? = မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Is not S place ..? = မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Are not S place ..? = မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Was not S place ..? = မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

Were not S place ..? = မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။ (hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

You say verb with “မွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား(hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)” at the end of the sentence.

You can say “မွာမွိဘူးလား(hma ma. shi. bu: la:)”.

e.g 1. Isn’t your mother in the room? = မင္းအေမ – အခန္း – ထဲမွာမဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(min. a. mei – a. khan: – hte: hma ma. hou’ bu: la:)

မင္းအေမ – အခန္း – ထဲမွာမရွိဘူးလား။

(min. a. mei – a. khan: – hte: hma ma. shi. bu: la:)

2. Weren’t you here yesterday? = မေန႕က – မင္း – ဒီမွာ – မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(ma. nei. ka – min:- di hma – ma. hou’ bu: la:)

3. Aren’t you Japanse ? = မင္းက – ဂ်ပန္လူမ်ဳိး – မဟုတ္ဘူးလား။

(min: ka. – gja. Pan lu mjou: – ma. hou’ bu: la:)

11

Verb to Do ?

Don’t S V = မ V ဘူးလား။ (ma. V bu: la:)

Doesn’t S V = မ V ဘူးလား။ (ma. V bu: la:)

Didn’t S V = မ V ဘူးလား။ (ma. V bu: la:)/ မ V ဲ့ဘူးလား။ (ma. V khe. bu: la:)

Say “မ(ma.)” before the verb and “ဘူးလား(bu: la:)” after the verb.

e.g

1. Don’t you go out ? = ခင္ဗ်ား- အျပင္ – သြားဘူးလား

(khin bja:- a. pjin – ma. thwa: bu: la:)

2. Doesn’t she meet David Backham ? = သူ – David Backham ကုိ – ေတြ႕ဘူးလား

(thu – David Backham kou – ma. twei. bu: la:)

3. Didn’t you see me yesterday ? = ခင္ဗ်ား- မေန႕က – ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ကုိ – ေတြ.ဘူးလား

(khin bja: – ma. nei. ka. – kjun to. kou – ma. twei. bu: la:)

ခင္ဗ်ား- မေန႕က – ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ကုိ – ေတြ.ခဲ့ဘူးလား

(khin bja: – ma. nei. ka. – kjun to. kou – ma. twei. khe. bu: la:)

4. Didn’t you do your homework? = မင္း – အိမ္စာ – လုပ္ခဲ့ဘူးလား

(min: – ein sa – ma. lou’ khe. bu: la:)

(b)Wh- Questions – လဲ ေမးခြန္း(lei: mei: khun:)

All wh- questions in Myanmar language end the word “လဲ(lei:)”

(i)Positive Wh- questions

Wh- do S V .. ? = ဘာ(ba)/ဘယ္(be) …… V လဲ(le:)/သလဲ(tha. le:)

Wh- does S V .. ? = ဘာ(ba)/ဘယ္(be) …… V လဲ(le:)/သလဲ(tha. le:)

Wh- did S V .. ? = ဘာ(ba)/ဘယ္(be) …… V လဲ(le:)/သလဲ(tha. le:)

Myanmar meanings of some wh- words

What = ဘာ(ba)

When you use “What” for subject, put the word “က(ka.)” after “ဘာ(ba)”.

What = ဘာက(ba ka./ga.)

When you use “What” for object, put the word “ကုိ(kou)” after “ဘာ(ba)”.

What = ဘာကုိ(ba kou)

Which = ဘယ္

When = ဘယ္အခ်ိန္

Where = ဘယ္ေနရာ

Who = ဘယ္သူ

Why = ဘာလို႕

How = ဘယ္လုိ